Sustainable international transport glossary

 KEY TERMS

This A-Z glossary defines key terms used in international transport and logistics.  While many are traditional terms in teaching two courses I updated it with many sustainability and modern industry terms. From additive manufacturing (3D printing) to Industry 4.0. Though British, my default is american spelling.

Abnormal road transport  – A vehicle or vehicle combination, having either no load or an indivisible load, which can only be transported by exceeding at least one of the maximum dimensions or axle, bogie or total weights authorised by Directive 96/53/EC and national legislation.

Abnormal vehicle/oversized vehicle –  A vehicle that due to its construction exceeds at least one of the maximum dimensions or axle, bogie or total weights (for unladen vehicles) authorised by Directive 96/53/EC and national legislation.

Actual time of arrival (ATA) – the time when a means of transport actually arrives at its place of destination.

Actual time of departure (ATD) – the time when goods are actually departed.

Additive manufacturing (AM, or 3D Printing) – is defined by the ISO52900 technical standard and refers to successive layers of material (metal, polymer, etc) formed under computer control to create an object from an Additive Manufacturing File (AMF) or other electronic file. The technology is evolving fast, but as well as nano-printers supporting circuitry applications the aerospace industry is now printing parts up to 30m in diameter. 3D printing makes it as cheap to create single items as it is to produce thousands. It thus undermines economies of scale and traditional concepts in transport and logistics. The Economist commented that “It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did….Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750—or the printing press in 1450, or the transistor in 1950—it is impossible to foresee the long-term impact of 3D printing. But the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.”

Arrival notice – a notification sent by a carrier to a nominated notifies party advising the arrival of a means of transport for a certain consignment.

Axle – an axle body (or axle bodies in case of an independent suspension) including two wheels, in one line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of  the vehicle.

 Axle distance – the distance between axles measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

Alternative fuels – known as non-conventional or advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels. Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors. Some well-known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bio-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, butanol), chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil, propane, and other biomass sources.

Backhaul – to haul a shipment back over part of a route that it has already travelled; return movement of cargo, usually opposite from the direction of its primary cargo destination.

Barcode – barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data relating to the object to which it is attached. Originally barcodes systematically represented data by varying the widths and spacing of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or one dimensional (1D). Later they evolved into rectangles, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns in two dimensions (2D). Although 2D systems use a variety of symbols, they are generally referred to as barcodes as well. Barcodes originally were scanned by special optical scanners called barcode readers.

Big Data – most commonly refers to the use of predictive analytics, user behavior analytics, or other advanced data analytics methods that extract value from data, rather than the size of data set. Big data analysis can find new correlations to spot business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime, etc. Emerging as an area, increasing use is being made of big data techniques in finance, urban, logistics and business informatics.

Bill of Lading – a document issued by a carrier to a shipper, signed by the captain, agent or owner of a vessel. It provides evidence of receipt of the goods (cargo), the conditions on which transportation is made (contract of carriage), the conditions of the goods and the engagement to deliver the goods at the prescribed port of destination to the lawful holder of the bill of lading. It is, therefore, both a receipt for merchandise and a contract to deliver it as freight. An inland bill of lading (a waybill on rail or the “pro forma” bill of lading in trucking) is used to document the transport of the goods between the port and the point of origin or destination. A waybill can also be used for ocean transportation.

Block train or full train – railway train in which all the wagons contain the goods of one customer, and are shipped from the same origin to the same destination, without being split up or stored on route.

Break Bulk Cargo – is conventional, un-containerized cargo that is shipped in units of one (such as un-containerized machinery or trucks) or shipped in units or packages (such as palletized or boxed cargo).

Broad gauge – Rail infrastructure term describing rails spaced more widely apart than ‘standard gauge’ 1,435 mm (4 ft 81⁄2 inches). Many early railroads were broad gauge. Russia has over 80,000 km of 1520mm broad gauge. Spain and Portugal railways standard is 1,668 mm.

Broker – person whose business it is to prepare shipping and customs documents for international shipments. Brokers often have offices at major freight gateways, including border crossings, seaports, and airports.

Bunker Adjustment Factor (BAF) – is a freight charge adjustment that takes into account the fluctuation of the bunker (fuel) prices during the contract period.

Business Support Systems (BSS) – which are a company’s applications that support customer-facing activities. Billing, order management, customer relationship management, call centre automation, are all examples of BSS applications.  Stritly, these are distinct from  Operational Support System (OSS) applications that support back-office activities which operate a network and its provision.

Cabotage (French)– originally this was a shipping term referring to port-to-port shipping along coastal routes. Cabotage now additionally covers aviation, railways, and road transport. Cabotage is the transport of goods or passengers between two points in the same country by a vessel or an aircraft registered in another country. It is used in the context of “cabotage rights”, the right of a company from one country to trade in another country. In aviation terms, it is the right to operate within the domestic borders of another country. Most countries do not permit aviation cabotage, for reasons of economic protectionism, national security or public safety. One notable exception is the European Union, whose members all grant cabotage rights to each other. In EU road transport, cabotage is regulated by EU law to be a maximum 7 day working period. Poland is the biggest provider of cabotage within the EU (Eurostat, 2016)

Carbon Calculator –  A carbon calculator estimates carbon footprints. It measures the 6 primary greenhouse gas emissions as carbon dioxide equivalent impact for a snapshot in time. Carbon calculators are used to calculate greenhouse gas inventories of facilities or operations in order to determine the amount of greenhouse gases produced for a specified year. The results can be used to prepare plans for actions to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emitted annually or by a target year.

Carbon Footprint – A carbon footprint is the measurement of total greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly contributed by a person, household, business, product or facility over the course of a year. It takes into account greenhouse gas emissions from stationary combustion of fuel in a fixed location, mobile combustion of fuels from transport vehicles and off-road equipment, process emissions from physical or chemical processing, other exhaust emissions, and indirect emissions from electricity usage.

Carbon Neutral – describes having a net zero carbon footprint. That is achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount reduced, removed or offset.

Carbon Offset – is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for, or to offset, emission(s) made elsewhere. Klimat kompensara in Swedish.  Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e).

Cargo rail station – a cargo traffic location where goods are handled and prepared for upcoming transportation. Also known as a a freight depot or yard.

Carrier – is any person or company who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterways or by combinations of such modes.

CMR or CMR Convention – the full title = Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road) is a United Nations convention. Signed in Geneva on 19 May 1956, it relates to legal issues concerning transportation of cargo by road. It has been ratified by the majority of European states. As of 2013, it has been ratified by 55 states. Based on the CMR, the International Road Union (IRU) developed a standard CMR waybill.

Combined transport or intermodal transport –the transportation of cargo in a container (or swap body or trailer), using more than one mode of transport (rail, ship or truck), without  handling of the freight itself when changing modes.

Compound – an area for storing vehicles.

Consignee – the receiver of goods. The consignee is the company or person named in a freight contract to whom the goods have been shipped, as stated on the Bill of Lading. The receiver of the goods, they may be an agent, not necessarily the ultimate owner.

Consignor – sender of goods. When goods are sent by a manufacturer or producer to a buyer, the act is referred to as consignment.   The carrier or transporter records the sender as the consignor and, generally, the ownership of the goods remains with the consignor until they have been delivered to the buyer and they have paid for the transportation and the price of the consignment in total.

Contract of Carriage – is a binding agreement (evidenced usually by a bill of lading) which contains conditions of carriage that spell out the obligations and rights of a carrier and a shipper. The carrier undertakes to deliver goods from a named place of departure to a named destination, in consideration for a freight charge. This contract addresses issues associated specifically with what is being carried, and how the liability and compensation for damage or loss of the goods is assessed, apportioned, and paid.

Cross-docking – the concept of packing products on the incoming shipments so they can be easily sorted at intermediate warehouses or for outgoing shipments based on final destination. The items are carried from the incoming vehicle docking point to the outgoing vehicle docking point without being stored in inventory at the warehouse. Cross-docking reduces inventory investment and storage space requirements.

Ballast tractor – a motor vehicle loaded with ballast weight intended for towing or pushing a heavy abnormal road transport drawbar trailer.

Convoy  –  group of at two or more abnormal road transports travelling one after the other.

Currency Adjustment Factor (CAF) – is a freight charge adjustment used by an international Carrier to offset foreign currency fluctuations.

Damage Codes – a set of codes which are used to report damages on a vehicle. AIAG prepared ‘Standard Global Damage Codes’ which ECG supports.14

Delivery – the physical process of handing over goods to the consignee or to the party acting on his behalf. Synonym: drop off.

Delivery date – is the date within which the shipper must deliver the goods to the Carrier in the port of loading.

Direct transport – the conveyance of goods directly from the consignor to the consignee without intermediate storage or unnecessary delay in the distribution activities.

Dolly – is a trailer used to: 1) couple a semi-trailer to a towing vehicle. A dolly carries the load of the front part of the semi-trailer. When a semi-trailer is coupled to a dolly, it is considered as a drawbar trailer.  2) carry the rear (end) part of a long indivisible load, when the load operates as the chassis of the trailer. 3) couple an abnormal road transport semi-trailer to a towing vehicle. A dolly distributes the load of the semi-trailer to the fifth wheel axle of the towing vehicle and the axle(s) of the dolly.

Drawbar trailer – (Directive 97/27/EC) A towed vehicle with at least two axles and equipped with a towing device, which controls the direction of the front axle(s). The towing device can move vertically relative to the trailer and does not transmit significant vertical forces to the towing vehicle.

Drop off – See Delivery.

Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The European Union’s Eco-Management and Audit Scheme is similar to ISO14000 in that it deals with an organization’s production and logistics processes and how they impact the environment. EMAS’s structure and material requirements are more demanding that ISO14000, mainly concerning performance improvement, legal compliance, and reporting duties., mainly concerning performance improvement, legal compliance, and reporting duties.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) – an electronic communication method that provides standards for exchanging data via any electronic means. By adhering to the same standard, two different companies, even in two different countries, can electronically exchange documents (such as purchase orders, invoices, shipping notices, and many others).15

Emergency fuel adjustment factor (EFAF) – is a freight charge adjustment that takes into account the fluctuation of the fuel prices where no BAF (bunker adjustment factor) is present in the contract of carriage, or where the BAF does not adequately cover the additional bunker costs.

Emissions – pollution including noise, heat, and radiation discharged into the atmosphere by vehicles, and residential, commercial or industrial facilities. Discharged into the air it is called an exhaust gas, into water it is called effluent.

Environmental assessment  –   Process of estimating and evaluating significant short-term and long-term effects of a program or project on the quality of its environment. It also includes identifying ways to minimize, mitigate, or eliminate these effects and/or compensate for their impact. An environmental impact assessment is prepared on the basis of an EA. Also called environmental evaluation.

Escort vehicle – a motor vehicle that escorts an abnormal road transport along its itinerary. It should ensure the conspicuity of the abnormal road transport. It is located at the rear or at the front of the transport, depending on the type of road. An escort may not carry part of the load itself.

Estimated time of arrival (ETA) – the time when a carrier estimates that a means of transport will arrive at its place of destination.16

Estimated time of departure (ETD) – the time when a carrier estimates that a means of transport will depart from its place of departure.17

Euro Class – European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives (Euro 5, Euro 6, …) staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards.

Electric vehicle (EV) – also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery to provide electricity or generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electrically powered space vehicles.18

Expedited Freight Services – Expedited freight is predictable because it allows different types of freight to be moved at a very high speed. Although not the same as “Guaranteed Delivery,” expedited freight has a speedy transit time and is usually arranged with delivery between one and five days after pickup.

Fairway dues – are shipping mode taxes collected by (USA) States to cover costs it incurs from the construction, maintenance and care of public fairways used for navigation, and safety devices required by waterborne traffic, and from assistance provided by icebreakers.

Final consignee – the receiving party for a scheduled vehicle movement.

First point of rest (FPR) – a nominated area where vehicles are parked when unloaded after a transport leg. Often they are inspected for damage at FPR as part of the process of handover from one LSP to another.

Fleet Management System – a system for collecting data on vehicle operations (route, fuel consumption, shipments, goods, etc.) and links this to office systems (ERP, accounting, etc.).

Forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU) – a unit of measurement equivalent to one forty-foot container. Two twenty-foot containers (TEUs) equal one FEU.19

Fourth Industrial Revolution. The (coming) systemic transformation of society, governance structures, and human identity in addition to economic/manufacturing ramifications of physical cyber systems. The first industrial revolution involved the mechanization of production using water and (coal fired) steam power; the second industrial revolution introduced mass production with the help of electric power, followed by the digital revolution and the use of electronics and IT to further automate production.

Fourth Party Logistics Services Provider (4PL) or fourth-party logistics provider – a supplier of outsourced supply chain coordination and management services that generally does not own or operate the underlying logistical assets and resources.20 Synonym: Lead logistics provider and Control Tower.

Free alongside (FAS) – a maritime trade term requiring the seller to deliver goods to a named port alongside a vessel designated by the buyer. “Alongside” means that the goods are within reach of a ship’s lifting tackle. When used in trade terms, the word “free” means the seller has an obligation to deliver goods to a named place for transfer to a carrier.21

Free on Board (FOB) – a maritime trade term requiring the seller to deliver goods on board a vessel designated by the buyer. The seller fulfils its obligations to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail. When used in trade terms, the word “free” means the seller has an obligation to deliver goods to a named place for transfer to a carrier.22

Freight – is the term for all merchandise, goods, products or commodities shipped by rail, air, road or water, other than baggage, express mail or regular mail.

Freight Charge – is the charge assessed for transporting freight.

Freight forwarder – person or company involved in the collection, consolidation, shipping and distribution of goods, who acts as an agent on behalf of a shipper. A freight forwarder frequently consolidates shipments from several shippers and co-ordinates booking reservations, clears freight through customs, prepares documents and arranges shipping, warehousing and delivery.

Freight invoice – a document issued by a transport service provider, specifying freight costs and charges incurred for a transport operation and stating conditions of payment. Synonym: Freight bill.

Freight payer – party responsible for the payment of freight charges.

Freight wagon – vehicles used for the transportation of goods (from all-round to special-purpose types) for rail transportation.

Freightways – European cross-border tracks for freight transportation used by all European train operators.

Full train – see ‘block train.’

Geographic Information System (GIS) – high quality database for assets using exact geographic information for object location, in most cases referenced to a national grid system. It may include full mapping information. Generally of a relational type and based on a standard software such as ORACLE or ARCINFO.

Geopolitics – focuses on political power in relation to geographic space. In particular, territorial waters and land territory in relation to diplomatic history. Topics of geopolitics include relations between the interests of international political actors, interests focused to an area, space, geographical element or ways, relations which create a geopolitical system.

Global Positioning by Satellite (GPS) – navigation based on measuring time delays of signals received from four or five satellites. See also DGPS.

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) – internationally agreed standard and protocols for mobile radio (telephone type) communications using cellular arrangements to maximise use of the frequency spectrum.

Global System for Mobile Communications for Railways (GSM-R) – specialised GSM cellular Personal Mobile Radio (PMR) implementation for railways using the 900MHz band and with a higher level of reliability and safety and more features than GSM.

Global Transport Label (GTL) – a label used between supplier and customer containing information related to the goods, parties and the electronic dispatch advice. Globally unique ID. Widely used by the automotive industry in Europe and in the US.

Greenhouse Gases (GHG) – the six primary categories of greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). They are gases in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases affect the temperature of the Earth; without them, Earth’s surface would average about 33 °C colder than the present average of 14 °C.

Group of axles – a combination of two or more axles being part of a bogie (EU Directive 97/27/EC)

Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) – combined total weight of a vehicle and its freight.

Guaranteed Delivery Freight Services – if the type of freight being shipped requires it to be delivered on a certain date and time, than guaranteed delivery is the most certain option. Care should be taken with ordering here: Typically, if the delivery is late reimbursement is based on the difference between the guaranteed price and the non-guaranteed rate.

Harbormaster – an officer who is in charge of vessel movements, safety, security, and environmental issues within a port.

Haulage – the inland transport service which is offered by the carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relative transport document.28

Headway – the time interval between the passing of the front ends of successive multiple units or trains moving along the same lane or track in the same direction.

Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) – the kind of road transport used for transporting car parts, materials or finished vehicles. Normally refers to vehicle / trailer combinations of more than 3.5 tons.

High and Heavy cargo (H&H) – the term for self-propelled cargo (excluding passenger cars and LCV) and agricultural/industrial trailers. Self-propelled cargo includes: commercial and passenger vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight of above 3.5 tons and agricultural/industrial/construction vehicles.

Hub – common connection point for devices in a network. Often used as a reference in a transportation network such as in “hub and spoke” commonly used in the airline and trucking industry.

Hybrid vehicle – a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. However, other mechanisms to capture and use energy are included.

Inbound logistics – movement of raw materials and components from suppliers/vendors to production processes and storage facilities.

Indivisible load – a load that cannot, for the purpose of carriage by road, be divided into two or more loads without undue expense or risk of damage and which, owing to its dimensions or weight, cannot be carried by a vehicle complying with Directive 96/53/EC or national legislation.

Incoterms – an internationally recognized standard and are used worldwide in international and domestic contracts for the sale of goods. They provide definitions and rules of interpretation for most common commercial terms. The latest version was published in 2010. These rules have nothing to do with the shipping terms, but are purely related to the sale of goods. Common Incoterms used in the logistics sector are: FAS (Free Alongside), FOB (Free On Board), FOR (Free On Rail), FOT (Free On Truck), and FIO (Free In and Out).

Industry 4.0 – new manufacturing methods involving physical cyber systems built on the principles of interoperability, information transparency, (dashboard information assisted) technical assistance and (automated) decentralized decision making. It is related to the term Fourth industrial revolution Industry 4.0 evolves from ‘Industrie 4.0’ used at the Hannover Fair, Germany in 2011.

Information of collection (IOC) – the process of receiving a consignment usually against the issue of a status report. As and from this moment the party accepting the consignment becomes responsible for the consignment.31

Information of delivery (IOD) – the process of receiving a consignment usually against the issue of a status report. As and from this moment the party accepting the consignment becomes responsible for the consignment.32

Inland bill of lading – is the Bill of Lading for transport over land and/or inland waterways, on the way to the point where the goods will be put aboard a ship and a normal (carrier’s) Bill of Lading will be issued.

Intermodal freight – Moving goods by more than one type of vehicle. Intermodal freight can be transported using shipping containers (intermodal containers) which can easily be transferred among railroad flatcars, ships, airplanes, and tractor-trailer trucks. Also known as intermodal freight and intermodal transport.

Intermodal traffic – see intermodal freight

Intermodal transport – see intermodal freight

International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code – is an amendment to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention (1974/1988) on minimum security arrangements for ships, ports and government agencies. Having come into force in 2004, it prescribes responsibilities to governments, shipping companies, shipboard personnel, and port/facility personnel to “detect security threats and take preventative measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade”.

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) – the term ITS refers to information and communication technology (applied to transport infrastructure and vehicles) that improve transport outcomes such as transport safety, transport productivity, travel reliability, informed travel choices, social equity, environmental performance and network operation resilience.

Internet of things (Internet of Things, IoT) – is the internetworking of connected devices (e.g. physical devices, vehicles, buildings, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data. In 2013 the Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things (IoT-GSI) defined the IoT as “the infrastructure of the information society.” The IoT allows objects to be sensed and/or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit in addition to reduced human intervention. When IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the existing Internet infrastructure. It is estimated that the IoT will consist of 50 billion objects by 2020.

ISO9000 – is the family of quality management systems standards is designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product or program.[1] ISO 9000 includes seven quality management principles and the requirements that organizations must fulfill to meet the standard Over 1 million organizations have been accredited by third-party certification bodies as meeting the requirements of ISO 9001.

ISO 14000 – is the family of environmental management standards to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes, etc.) negatively affect the environment ; (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements; and (c) continually improve in this area. ISO 14001 is ISO 14001:2015, published in September 2015. ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both apply to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. As with ISO 9001, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. ISO 14001 requirements are an integral part of the European Union’s Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). EMAS’s structure and material requirements are more demanding, mainly concerning performance improvement, legal compliance, and reporting duties.

Jockey / yard jockey – is a person responsible for the movement and positioning of cars within compound or loading /unloading them on a vessel/train/truck.

Just in Time (JIT) – see Lean

Kaizen (Jap.) – a system of continuous improvement in which muda (waste) is eliminated by all employees

Lading – means loading (cargo or freight). An old English word but commonly used in transport.

Lane metres – the length of parking lanes available for vehicle storage either on the compound or on board ship.

Last point of rest (LPR) – is the last official stop before the Carrier takes custody/responsibility of the goods.

Lead Logistics Provider (LLP) – Synonym: Control Tower or Fourth Party Logistics Services Provider (4PL)

Lead Mileage – the distance from a place of loading to a place of delivery.

Lead time – amount of time required for an item to be available for use from the time it is ordered. Lead time should include purchase order processing time, vendor processing time, in transit time, receiving, inspection, and any prepack times. However, based on the way many inventory systems work, there may be problems incorporating internal factors such as post-receipt processing in Lead-time, so in many systems, the lead time just represents the period of time from which the item is ordered to the time it arrives at your dock.

Lean – an enabler to identify optimal value for the customer and each product’s value stream. Lean focuses on eliminating wasteful activities and creating smooth product and process flow, enabling an effective pull system. As a mindset, culture, and toolkit, lean is applicable to all organizational areas. A lean environment requires all team members’ dedication and is focused on ongoing continuous improvement. Also known as  Just in time (JIT).

Licensed Operator – a company or organisation who is granted a licence by the Rail Regulator to operate rail services, and to operate vehicles on the track, under terms and conditions defined by the Rail Regulator.

Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) – is the term for commercial vehicles with a gross vehicle weight (GVW) of up to 3.5 tonnes.

Light dues – are taxes paid by ships entering UK ports to cover the cost of lighthouses, beacons and other navigational aids in the UK and Republic of Ireland waters. Such taxes are not applied in most European Union member states.

Line haul – the intermediate/line hauls stage of transport in the movement of a consignment of goods. Synonym: Main Carriage.

Load factor – an imprecise term describing the transport efficiency of a system, such as a vehicle, a route or a logistic strategy. The many  interpretations suggest that the term should be refined or replaced by more precise terms.

Loading Gauge – the dimensions of height and width which must not be exceeded by a rail vehicle or its load, so as not to foul lineside fixtures or structures. Similarly, the dimensions in respect to the rails which must not be infringed by such structures (structure gauge).

Loading yard – European cross-border tracks for freight transportation used by all European train operators.

Location ID/ Location code – unique identifier for a specific physical location of any type. There are several identification schemes like UN location codes, GS1 location numbers or similar coding based on ISO Data Identifiers.

Locomotive – a self-propelled, non-revenue rail vehicle designed to convert electrical or mechanical energy into tractive effort to haul trains of non-powered carriages and freight cars.

Logistics – all activities involved in the management of product movement; delivering the right product from the right origin to the right destination, with the right quality and quantity, at the right schedule and price to satisfy consumer demand. The process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient and cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process stocks, finished goods and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for customers. Logistics encompasses 4 warehousing, transport, added-value/pre-retailing services and IT solutions and covers inbound, outbound, internal, international and reverse product flows.38

Logistics Service Provider (LSP) – an organisation that provides logistics services.

Logistic unit – in this context Logistic Unit is equivalent with Package, Piece and Transport Handling Unit. It describes a unit that carries/contains the goods. Can be a parcel, packaging material, pallet, box, bag, container or a trailer unit. Represents lowest packaging unit handled by the transport service provider.

Logistics label – See Transport label. The wording of “Transport label” and “Logistics label” are not always used in a similar way, some strictly differentiate between the two while others see them as synonyms.

Machine to Machine (M2M) – refers to direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless.M2M communication can include industrial instrumentation, enabling a sensor or meter to communicate the data it records (such as temperature, inventory level, etc.) to application software that can use it (for example, adjusting an industrial process based on temperature or placing orders to replenish inventory).

Manifest (in transport) – listing of goods comprising the cargo carried in a means of transport or in a transport-unit. The manifest gives the commercial particulars of the goods.

Marshalling yard – is a railroad yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate wagons on to one of several tracks.

Maximum Authorized Weight – The maximum weight for use of a laden vehicle in international traffic.

Mobile crane – a self-propelled machine specially designed for lifting loads.

Modal split – the amount of total traffic volume according to the transport mode (road, rail, ship). This term is used for transport vehicle (e.g. based on total PCUs); passenger (e.g. based on total passenger km) and goods (e.g. total ton km) traffic.

Modular trailer – any towed vehicle, for which a permit is needed to circulate on the roads, composed of inter-connectable and interchangeable modules. Modules can be coupled in a variety of combinations.

Muda (Japanese) – means “waste” in Japanese, can involve overproduction, waiting, conveyance, processing, inventory, motion, and / or correction

Multi-modal traffic – freight transportation involving several different Types of transport mode (e.g. rail, truck, aircraft etc.)

Naphta – refers to flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures, such as gas condensates and crude oil or refined products such as kerosene. Naphtha exposure in the workplace involves breathing it in, swallowing it, skin contact, and/or eye contact. The (USA’s) Occupational Safety and Health Administration maximum naphtha exposure limit is 100 ppm (400 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 1000 ppm, 10% of the lower explosive limit, naphtha is dangerous to health.

Narrow Gauge – a railway gauge narrower than standard gauge. A gauge of 24 inches or less is commonly employed for industrial railways. Metre gauge is often used in territories at some time under the influence of Germany and France while UK influenced areas are dominated by 3ft6in tracks (1067mm).

Offset – (1) a carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) and can represent all six primary categories of greenhouse gases. (2) a general term for reciprocal international business spend commitment, often agreed at the inter-governmental or state level.

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) – In the context of these Guidelines, an automotive manufacturer

Open Wagon – A form of freight hauling car for bulk goods. Used in trucking and rail freight.

Operating Phase – emissions produced during use of fuel (= ‘Tank to Wheel’ emissions).

Original consignor – the party that initiates the shipping process. Synonym: Original shipper

Outbound logistics – process related to the movement and storage of products (new vehicles) from the end of the production line to the end user.

One-stop shop (OSS) refers to a buyer seeking a ‘total (transport) service solution’ from one provider. (2)

Operational Support System (OSS) applications that (strictly) support back-office activities which operate a network and its provisioning. OSS are distinct from BSS (Business Support Systems) which are applications that support customer-facing activities. Examples of BSS applications are: billing, order management, customer relationship management and call center automation.

Overall height – the maximum vertical distance between the infrastructure surface (e.g. road) and a horizontal plane touching the highest point of a vehicle/load combination.

Overall length – the distance between the very front and rearmost points of the vehicle. In law, it relates to the laden (loaded) vehicle on a horizontal pavement, and the distance is specified as between the two vertical plans perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and touching the foremost and rearmost points of the vehicle/load combination.

Package – See Logistic unit.

Package ID – unique identifier of an individual package – as visible from outside the package, also communicated in the EDI message.

Passenger Car (PC) – is a road motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine persons (including the driver).

Passenger Car unit (PCU) – is a vehicle unit used for expressing highway capacity. One car is considered as a single unit, cycle, motorcycle is considered as half car unit. Bus and truck is equivalent to 3 cars or 3 PCU. PCUs are commonly used in design and extension of roads , traffic trend and pattern analysis, signal and junction design, plan of one way traffic and other regulatory measures on the road.

Payee – party to whom a payment is to be made.

Pendulum axle – an arrangement of two or more axles in one line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle with a provision for an equal load distribution on all wheels. Note that double mounted wheels are considered as one wheel.

Permit – A document issued by public authorities which authorizes an abnormal road transport to use public roads or, in some Member States, private roads.

Pick up of goods – See collection of goods.

Pick-up instruction – an instruction given to the driver for picking up logistic unit(s) from a pick-up location.

Pick-up location – See Place of Despatch.

Pick-up request – the process of making a reservation for space on a means of transport for the movement of goods.

Pick-up request confirmation – the notification issued by the transport service provider to confirm the status of the pick-up request, e.g. it is accepted (and that space has been reserved on means of transport for the movement of goods) or that it is rejected. Functional – after business validation. Technical – after system acceptance.

Place of collection – See Place of Dispatch.

Place of delivery – place to which the goods are to be delivered under transport contract terms. This may be different from the location of the consignee.

Place of departure – place from which the means of transport or transport equipment is departing.

Place of dispatch – place at which the goods are taken over for carriage (operational term), this place can be different from the transport contract place of acceptance.

Place of destination – same as the delivery address city if existing in the message, otherwise same as the receiver’s city.

Place of Terms of delivery – a place which describes the conditions related to the Terms of delivery.

Police escort – a police presence escorting, for example, an  abnormal road transport along its itinerary. As opposed to a private escort.

Port of Entry (POE) – a port used by a specific manufacture to import their vehicles into a country or region.

Port of Loading – the port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel.

Post Production Option (PPO) – any vehicle enhancement carried out after factory line-off and before delivery to a customer.

Pre-Delivery Inspection (PDI) – a standard procedure for products, especially in the automotive industry, carried out before handover to the customer. Often a checklist is worked through. For services the equivalent is ‘Ready for Service’ or RFS.

Private escort – A private company’s personnel escorting, for example, an abnormal road transport along its itinerary.  Distinct from a police escort.

Private wagon owner – companies that hire freight cars out for freight operations on a commercial basis.

Product life cycle assessment – a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process

Proof of collection (POC) – evidence for transition of liability, either in printed or in electronic format.

Proof of delivery (POD) – evidence for transition of liability, either in printed or in electronic format.

Pull logistics system – “Just in time” logistics system driven by customer demand and enabled by telecommunications and information systems rather than by manufacturing process and inventory stockpiling.

Purchase order (PO) – purchaser’s authorization used to formalize a purchase transaction with a supplier. The physical form or electronic transaction a buyer uses when placing an order for merchandise.

Push logistics system – inventory-based logistics system characterized by regularly scheduled flows of products and high inventory levels.

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) – the wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Some tags are powered by electromagnetic induction from magnetic fields produced near the reader. Some types collect energy from the interrogating radio waves and act as a passive transponder. Other types have a local power source such as a battery and may operate at hundreds of meters from the reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag does not necessarily need to be within line of sight of the reader, and may be embedded in the tracked object. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC).

Rearmost point of a vehicle – When the vehicle is on a horizontal pavement, the point where a vertical plan perpendicular to the vehicle longitudinal axis touches the front of the unladen vehicle.

Rear overhang  – The distance measured horizontally and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle between two transverse planes passing through the foremost rearmost point of the load and rearmost point of the vehicle.

Reverse logistics – specialized segment of logistics focusing on the movement and management of products and resources after the sale and after delivery to the customer (includes product returns and repair for credit).

Receiver – or receiver of goods.  See Consignee.

Reefer – A refrigerated railcar, used to transport perishable goods.

Registration Plate – a license plate is assigned to a transport unit by its issuer. The license plate is used for globally unique identification of transport units but could also be used in other applications. Any license plate issuer shall be authorized by an issuing agency in accordance with the rules set up by that agency and ISO 15459

Roll-on-roll-off passenger (Ro-Pax) – a Ro-Ro vessel built for freight vehicle transport along with passenger accommodation. Technically this encompasses all ferries with both a roll-on/roll-off car deck and passenger-carrying capacities, but in practice, ships with facilities for more than 500 passengers are often referred to as cruise ferries.

Rolling stock – transportation equipment that moves on wheels. There are two types: self-propelled rolling stock, such as trucks and trains; and pulled rolling stock such as trailers and coaches.

Roll-on-roll-off (Ro-Ro) – A type of ship designed to permit cargo to be driven on at origin and off at destination; used extensively for the movement of automobiles.

Sailing frequency – is the frequency of departures from a port per day/week/month, etc.

Schnabel car – a specialized type of freight car for extra heavy and over-sized loads where the car is loaded in such a way that the load forms part of the car superstructure

Self-propelled machine – EU Directive 97/68/EC defines this as any mobile machine, transportable industrial equipment or vehicle with or without body work, not intended for the use of passenger or goods transport on the road, propelled by an engine.

Self-propelled modular trailer – A self-propelled modular trailer consists of modules which can be coupled in a variety of combinations to carry an indivisible load.

Seller (of goods) – party selling goods or services to a buyer.

Semi-trailer (Directive 97/27/EC)  A vehicle which is designed to be coupled to a motor vehicle or to a dolly and imposes a substantial part of its weight on the motor vehicle or on the dolly.

Sender (of goods) – See Consignor.

Ship from – See Consignor.

Ship to – See Consignee.

Shipment – a separately identifiable collection of packages/pieces (available to be) transported from one original consignor to one final consignee via one or more modes of transport. A shipment can be consolidated to one consignment per transport leg, i.e. possibly several different consignments during the whole transport assignment.

Shipment ID – a shipment Issuer’s unique reference that is non-repeatable within a calendar year and is assigned to a dispatch.

Shipper – Shipper’ is the company or person who ships cargo to the consignee. See Consignor.

Shipping instruction – information providing all details required for the physical movement of a consignment/shipment.

Shunting – the act of moving the cargo (vehicles) within the terminal/port or from one terminal to another in the same port on its own wheels. In rail it is the process of sorting items of rolling stock into complete train sets or consists, or the reverse.

Siding – A section of rail track off the main line. Sidings are often used for storing rolling stock or freight. A siding is also used as a form of rail access for warehouses and other businesses, where the siding will often meet up with loading docks at rail car height in the building. USA term ‘a loop’ or ‘passing track’.

Side overhang – Distance from the widest point of the vehicle to the widest point of the load, measured parallel to the lateral axis of the vehicle.

Slot – a license that allows its holder, usually a railway company, to run a train on a specific section of track at a specific time, similar to an airport slot in civil aviation. Rail infrastructure companies such as Network Rail in Great Britain and DB Netze in Germany own the tracks and stations in their area of responsibility and make money by selling train slots to companies which operate freight and passenger services.

Splat Chart – a 2D representation of a vehicle, normally, used to annotate damage during an inspection procedure.

Standard Gauge – A gauge where the rails are spaced 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) apart—by far the most common gauge worldwide.

Stuffing – loading. Often used to describe the act of loading an intermodal container at a port or terminal.

Sustainable  – “Sustainable [e.g. transport] is [e.g. transport] that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” UN Bruntland Commission definition, 1987. It contains within it two key concepts: needs and limitations. Limitations, for example, those imposed by the state of technology or social organization, on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs. The three pillars of sustainability are: environment, social and economic.

Subcontractor – in this context the party undertaking transport of goods from one location to another on behalf of the carrier.

Supply chain – starting with unprocessed raw materials and ending with final customer using the finished goods.

Supplier – party which provides goods and/or services to one or more customers.

Survey – is the inspection of the goods made by a surveyor.

Terminal – An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel, train, truck, or airplane or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel, train, truck, or airplane.

Terms of delivery – all the conditions agreed upon between parties with regard to the ownership of the various responsibilities involved in the delivery of goods and/or services

Trans-shipment / transhipment – is the shipment of goods or containers to an intermediate destination, then to another destination. One reason for transshipment is to change the transport), known as trans-loading. Another reason is to combine small shipments into a larger shipment (consolidation), or dividing the large shipment at the other end (deconsolidation). Transshipment usually takes place in transport hubs. Much international transshipment also takes place in designated customs areas, thus avoiding the need for customs checks or duties, otherwise a major hindrance for efficient transport.

Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) – a container size standard of twenty feet. Two twenty-feet containers (TEUs) equals one FEU. Container vessel capacity and port throughput capacity are frequently referred to in TEUs.

Third Party Logistics Services Provider (3PL) – describes businesses that provide one or many of a variety of logistics-related services. Types of services would include public warehousing, contract warehousing, transportation management, distribution management, freight consolidation. A 3PL provider may take over all receiving, storage, value added, shipping, and transportation responsibilities for a client and conduct them in the 3PL’s warehouse using the 3PL’s equipment and employees, or may manage one or all of these functions in the client’s facility using the client’s equipment, or any combination of the above.

Towed machinery – a non-powered towed vehicle which is neither constructed nor equipped to carry goods or people. For example a HIAB crane.

Track & Trace – process of recording the progress of a consignment through the supply chain, usually in or near real-time, in order to track its status or trace its movements. Sophisticated control tower systems function as a single point of control, delivering centralized command of the supply chain, with full visibility.

Tractor unit – a semi-trailer towing vehicle.

Traffic director – A traffic director has the legal right to direct, stop and give instructions to other traffic.   A person who has completed the abnormal road transport traffic director’s training and has been granted a traffic director’s license by national authorities.

Trailer – or towed vehicle – is defined by EU Directive 97/27/EC as a non-self-propelled vehicle which is designed and constructed to be towed by a motor vehicle.

Trailer on a flat car (TOFC) – an intermodal container on a flat bed rail freight car.

Trans loading – the process by which goods are transferred from one means of transport to another.

Transit time – total time that elapses between a shipment’s delivery and pick-up.

Transport buyer – the party that is commercially contracting the transport service provider.

Transport equipment – a separately identifiable non powered device (e.g. a 20/40 ft. container, a trailer, a rail car, a handling equipment), but not packaging. See also Logistic unit.

Transport Handling Unit – See Logistic unit.

Transport ID – a unique identifier for a mode of transportation.

Transport information – a generic term for all information exchanged throughout the transport chain

Transport instruction – a generic term for the information providing the mandatory details to arrange transportation.

Transport label – a label containing barcoded and human readable information about the transport and the goods. Also containing an ID with some kind of uniqueness. The wording of “Transport label” and “Logistics label” are not always used in a similar way, some strictly differentiate between the two while others see them as synonyms. See examples: STILL, STE, GTL, OTL, and MITL.

Transport mean – a separately identifiable powered transport device (e.g. truck, vessel, plane).

Transport mode – the method of transport used for the conveyance of goods or persons, e.g. by rail, by road, by sea.

Transport request – See pick-up request.

Transport Service Provider – any company who provides a transport service note: A transport service provider can be a freight carrier (acting directly for shippers or as sub-contractor for another freight carrier or for a freight forwarder), a freight forwarder, and a logistics service provider which provides transport services.

Transport status – the status of goods during a transport service. For example, in transit, damaged, delayed, or diverted. Used to collect information for track & trace.

Transport user – user (often buyer) of transport services offered or performed by transport service providers. Can include transport buyer, consignor and consignee.

Unique Consignment Reference (UCR) – a globally unique identification of consignment for customs declarations (WCO framework)

Ultimate consignee – See Final consignee.

Vehicle Processing Centre (VPC) – usually a dedicated building within a compound where PPO and PDI operations are carried out.

VIN Number – a vehicle identification number, is a unique code including a serial number, used by the automotive industry to identify individual motor and towed vehicles as defined in ISO3833. In 1981 the format was standardized so that all over-the-road-vehicles contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters I (i), O (o), Q (q), Ä (ä), Ö (ö) or Å (å)  to avoid confusion.

Warehouse – covered place for the reception and storage of goods. Principal warehouse activities include receipt of product, storage, shipment and order picking. See also distribution centre.

Waybill – is the official shipping document that travels with the shipment . As a document it is issued by a carrier giving details and instructions relating to the shipment of a consignment of goods. Typically it will show the names of the sender and receiver, the point of origin of the consignment, its destination, and route. Also a description of the goods, their weight and freight charges.  Most freight forwarders and trucking companies use an in-house waybill called a ‘house bill’. These typically contain their ‘conditions of contract of carriage’ terms on the back of the form. These terms generally set out and provide limits to liability and other conditions of of their service. Most airlines use an ‘air waybill’ which additionally lists airport of destination, flight number, and time. Waybills are similar to a courier’s receipt which contains the details of the consignor (sender) and the consignee, and also the point of origin and destination. Unlike the Original Bill of Lading, the waybill is not a document of title to the goods.

Warning light – a flashing or rotating amber beacon according to Regulation 65 of the UNECE Agreement concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions.

Wheel base – For semi-trailers it is the distance between centres of king-pin and rearmost axle group.  For other vehicles: distance between centres of the foremost and rearmost axle groups.

Well-to Tank Emissions – term to describe emissions from generation and delivery of fuel.

Well to Wheel Emissions – term to describe emissions from both generation and use of fuel.

Vehicle combination (Directive 96/53/EC)  A road train or an articulated vehicle consisting of a motor vehicle and one trailer, or a motor vehicle and towed machinery. (Remark: this definition given by the Expert Group goes beyond Directive 96/53/EC and includes towed/self-propelled machine).

Vehicle height – the maximum vertical distance between the road surface and a horizontal plan touching the highest point of the vehicle.

Vehicle length – When the vehicle is on a horizontal pavement, the distance between the two vertical plans perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and touching its foremost and rearmost points.

Vehicle Operation System (VOS) – information on how one or several vehicles operate to execute a certain transport service. (Term used in CEN Standard).

Vehicle width – When the vehicle is on a horizontal pavement, the distance between the two vertical plans parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and touching the vehicle on the left and right sides when in a stretched position.

Yard – a storage compound or goods yard etc.´

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